Hippocrates suspected that these states of insanity were due to imbalances of fluids in the body. He identified these fluids to be four in particular: blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm. Furthermore, not far from Hippocrates, the philosopher Plato would come to argue the mind, body, and spirit worked as a unit. Any imbalance brought to these compositions of the individual could bring distress or lack of harmony within the individual.
Introduction to psychopathology
This philosophical idea would remain in perspective [ vague ] until the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century's Romantic Movement, the idea that healthy parent-child relationships provided sanity became a prominent idea. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau introduced the notion that trauma in childhood could have negative implications later in adulthood.
In the nineteenth century, greatly influenced by Rousseau's ideas and philosophy, Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud would bring about psychotherapy and become the father of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Talking therapy would originate from his ideas on the individual's experiences and the natural human efforts to make sense of the world and life.
The scientific discipline of psychopathology was founded by Karl Jaspers in It was referred to as "static understanding" and its purpose was to graphically recreate the "mental phenomenon" experienced by the client. The study of psychopathology is interdisciplinary, with contributions coming from clinical, social, and developmental psychology, as well as neuropsychology and other psychology subdisciplines; psychiatry; neuroscience generally; criminology; social work; sociology; epidemiology; statistics; and more.
How do scientists and people in general distinguish between unusual or odd behavior on one hand, and a mental disorder on the other?
One strategy is to assess a person along four dimensions: deviance, distress, dysfunction. Instead of conceptualizing psychopathology as consisting of several discrete categories of mental disorders, groups of psychological and psychiatric scientists have proposed a "general psychopathology" construct, named the p-factor, because of its conceptual similarity with the g factor of general intelligence.
Thus, the p factor is a dimensional, as opposed to a categorical, construct. Higher scores on the p factor dimension have been found to be correlated with higher levels of functional impairment, greater incidence of problems in developmental history, and more diminished early-life brain function.
In addition, those with higher levels of the p factor are more likely to have inherited a genetic predisposition to mental illness. The existence of the p factor may explain why it has been " The p factor has been likened to the g factor of general intelligence , which is also a dimensional system by which overall cognitive ability can be defined. As psychopathology has typically been studied and implemented as a categorical system, like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual system developed for clinicians, the dimensional system of the p factor provides an alternative conceptualization of mental disorders that might improve our understanding of psychopathology in general; lead to more precise diagnoses; and facilitate more effective treatment approaches.
An Overview of Psychopathology
Benjamin Lahey and colleagues first proposed a general psychopathology factor in The term psychopathology may also be used to denote behaviors or experiences which are indicative of mental illness, even if they do not constitute a formal diagnosis. For example, the presence of a hallucination may be considered as a psychopathological sign, even if there are not enough symptoms present to fulfill the criteria for one of the disorders listed in the DSM or ICD. In a more general sense, any behaviour or experience which causes impairment, distress or disability , particularly if it is thought to arise from a functional breakdown in either the cognitive or neurocognitive systems in the brain, may be classified as psychopathology.
It remains unclear how strong the distinction between maladaptive traits and mental disorders actually is,   e. It serves as reference for a range of professionals in medicine and mental health in the United States particularly. These professionals include psychologists, counselors, physicians, social workers, psychiatric nurses and nurse practitioners, marriage and family therapists, and more. Some scholars have argued that field should switch from the DSM categorical approach of mental disorders to the Research Domain Criteria RDoC dimensional approach of mental disorders, although the consensus at present is to retain DSM for treatment, insurance, and related purposes, while emphasizing RDoC conceptualizations for planning and funding psychiatric research.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Psychopathology journal. Not to be confused with Psychopathy. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Psychology portal. Amotivation is a symptom , whereas homelessness and victimization are manifestations consequences of the mental illness. Thus, psychopathology is the scientific study of abnormal psychology , i.
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OED Online 3rd ed. The study of pathological mental and behavioural processes Abnormal psychology; an abnormal psychological process or state. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 18 February A radiological approach to a process". Radiologia Clinica et Biologica.
- Psychopathology I | Introduction to Psychology | Brain and Cognitive Sciences | MIT OpenCourseWare.
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A text book of psycholopathology. The Internet Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved 7 March March To remedy this, many individuals suffering from mental illness were tortured in an attempt to drive out the demon.
Most people know of the witch trials where many women were brutally murdered due to a false belief of possession. When the torturous methods failed to return the person to sanity, they were typically deemed eternally possessed and were executed. By the eighteenth century we began to look at mental illness differently. Because of this, thousands of people confined to dungeons of daily torture were released to asylums where medical forms of treatment began to be investigated.